Hemophilic arthropathy refers to permanent joint disease occurring in haemophilia. Around 50% of patients with haemophilia will develop a severe arthropathy. Haemarthroses may be spontaneous or result from minor trauma. Proliferative chronically inflamed synovium results in the development of haemophilic arthropathy.
Haemophilic arthropathy is often monoarticular or oligoarticular. Large joints are most commonly involved in the following order of frequency:
- Knee: Radiographic features: widened intercondylar notch, squared inferior margin of the patella, bulbous femoral condyles, flattened condylar surfaces, Arnold-Hilgartner classification
- Elbow: Radiographic features: enlarged radial head, widened trochlear notch
- Ankle: Radiographic features: talar tilt: relative undergrowth of the lateral side of the tibial epiphysis leads to a pronated foot