Pulmonary manifestations of rheumatic diseases
Pulmonary manifestations of rheumatic diseases are among the least understood but potentially life threatening complications among rheumatic disease. One of the most difficult aspects in classifying patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is that the symptoms, physiologic abnormalities, radiographic findings, as well as the histopathology can be identical for patients with idiopathic disease (idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, IIP), ILD in the setting of CTD or ILD due to other infectious, environmental, or even medication exposures. Thus, it is critical during the evaluation of a patient with ILD to determine if the patient has idiopathic ILD, connective tissue-associated ILD, or other possible causes of parenchymal lung disease.
Pulmonary manifestations of the rheumatic diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The most frequently manifestations associated with pleuropulmonary disease are rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren syndrome (SS).